Wednesday, September 2, 2020

The Rational Consumer Personal Statement Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words

The Rational Consumer - Personal Statement Example The elective I have for purchasing gas is utilization of different sorts of powers and open methods for transport. In any case, in subbing these options with purchasing fuel, I should cause an open door cost. As per Hussain (2010), an open door cost is the expense acquired when one abandons utilizing an item to utilizing its best other option. In this specific case, the open door cost for purchasing gas is the burden of utilizing open methods for transport and motor glitches because of utilization of different fills. Because of this open door cost, I won't have the option to go to zero utilization in the short run. Nonetheless, I may later go to zero utilization by procuring a motor explicitly made to utilize different energizes. In the short run, when the cost of fuel builds, the costs on different merchandise will increment particularly for substitute of gas. The explanation behind this is replacement impact. Replacement impact is the relative change in utilization of an item as shoppers substitute it with less expensive substitutes (Hirschey, 2008). As the cost of fuel expands, I would substitute it with its less expensive other options and accordingly the pay I spend on those different merchandise would

Saturday, August 22, 2020

Terrorism Both Sides of the Conflict free essay sample

An assessment of the marvel of fear mongering and a glance at the two sides of the dread assault on September eleventh. This exposition manages the subject of fear mongering, with center around the occasions which happened on September eleventh. The creator takes a gander at themes, for example, the United States job in the war on dread, the Palestinian viewpoints just as the effects of such fear on the world. Remembers different world pioneers perspectives for the fear assaults. Psychological oppression is a point that has a wide range of perspectives. One gatherings activities can be viewed as a psychological militant act to a few while others see it as a battle for opportunity. Psychological warfare has become a significant world issue that has influenced all countries considering the September 11 assaults. To manage such a wide issue, numerous suppositions must be heard so as to get any opportunity at settling the issues that fear mongering makes us face. We will compose a custom exposition test on Psychological oppression: Both Sides of the Conflict or then again any comparable subject explicitly for you Don't WasteYour Time Recruit WRITER Just 13.90/page This report researches the various discernments and perspectives that world chiefs, normal residents, just as the different aggressor bunches have on this dubious subject.

Friday, August 21, 2020

Martin Luther :: essays research papers

Martin Luther MARTIN LUTHER, the best of the Protestant reformers of the sixteenth century, was conceived at Eisleben, on the tenth of November 1483. His dad was a digger in humble conditions; his mom, as Melanchthon records, was a lady of praiseworthy goodness, and regarded in her social status. Soon after Martin's introduction to the world, his folks evacuated to Mansfield, where their conditions ere since quite a while ago improved by industry and determination. Their child was sent to class; and both at home and at school his preparation was of a serious and solidifying character. At the point when he arrived at his eighteenth year, he entered the college at Erfurt, with a perspective on qualifying himself for the legitimate calling. He experienced the typical examinations in the works of art and the schoolmen, and accepting his certificate as Doctor of Philosophy, or Master of Arts, in 1505, when he was twenty-one years old. Past to this, be that as it may, a significant difference in feeling had started in him. Risking one day to inspect the vulgate adaptation of the Bible in the University Library, he saw with wonder that there were a greater number of accounts and epistles than in the lectionaries. He was captured by the substance of his recently discovered fortune. His heart was profoundly contacted, and he set out to give himself to an otherworldly life. He isolated himself trom his companions and individual understudies, and pulled back into the Augustine cloister at Erfurt. Here he went through the following three years of his life - long stretches of exceptional intrigue and noteworthiness, for it was during this period that he laid in the investigation of the Bible and of Augustine, the establishment of those doctrinal feelings which were a short time later to animate and fortify him in his battles against the papacy. He portrays strikingly the emergency through which he passed, the weight of wrongdoing which so since a long time ago lay upon him, too overwhelming to even consider being borne; and the help that he finally found free comprehension of the absolution of sins through the beauty of Christ. In the year 1507, Luther was appointed a cleric, and in the next year he moved to Wittenberg, bound to get its main superstar from his name. He turned into an instructor in the new college, established there by the Elector Frederick of Saxony. In 1510 or 1511, he was sent set for Rome, and he has depicted yery clearly what he saw and heard there. On his arrival from Rome, he was made a Doctor of the Holy Scriptures, and his vocation as a reformer might be said to have started.

Friday, June 5, 2020

Anne Moody and Civil Rights Movements in Mississippi - 1100 Words

Anne Moody and Civil Rights Movements in Mississippi (Book Review Sample) Content: Student's Name: Professor's Name: Course: Date:Anne Moody and Civil Rights Movements in MississippiEvents in Moodyà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬s youth that inspired her to get involved in the Civil Rights MovementAnne Moody was born on 15th September 1940, and she was raised in one of the most violent and turbulent period for African Americans (Moody 15). She witnessed indirectly or directly various senseless crimes happening in the state she was born. Additionally, Ann Moody encountered issues to do with racial discrimination for the first time at the age of four years. Equally, Moodyà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬s family resided in a plantation where a cabin was their house. Her parents were forced to leave Anne and her siblings at home because they toiled as sharecroppers, and they hardly made enough money for the family (Moody 17).College and work experiences, coupled with seeing the actions and fear of her mother, made Moody to desire change as a woman from the community of African American. In addi tion, after Anneà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬ uncle put their house on fire, it severely affected Anneà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬s family, and her father left her mother for a mulatto woman who was fair-skinned. As such, Anne noted the hatred her mother had for the other woman in relation to race (Moody 19). The incident made Anne see people in terms of race because of the way her motherà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬s hatred the other woman named Florence. Despite being young, Anne witnessed her mother using racial labels to refer to the other woman of different color (Moody 88). Equally, the poverty that Moody experienced as a young woman made her wonder why others lived well as they were suffering. The poor and the rich in her society influenced her ideology when she joined the Civil Rights Movement. In addition, when she worked for different whites her anger for racial prejudice grew even more. Since, some whites educated her in a way to show her the place of African Americans in society.In 1955, Emmett Till was taken out his home and violently lynched for whistling and winking at a white lady (Moody 126). The lynching of Emmett had an enormous influence on Moody; she was able to see the actual disparity between blacks and whites. Equally, she started fearing for her life because she knew her skin color was black. Consequently, the death of Emmett Till marked the start of Anneà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬s ventures into the field of activism, and the death acted as her ideologyà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬s foundation. In addition, when in college Anne led other students to boycott after they found maggots in their grits. She confronted the kitchen staff, Miss Harris, to complain on behalf of other students because of the maggots in their food (Boynton and Jo Malin 406). In reality, this incident depicted how Anne could stand up for what she believed was right, fair and equal for everyone.Anne was involved with Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC) when at the Tougaloo College. Equally, she also got involved with the National Associa tion for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP). The SNCC dealt with forming demonstrations to desegregate private and public establishments, where Anne attended various planning meetings (Moody, 213). However, one day when they were at Woolworths store in Mississippi, they were violently attacked making Anne conclude that it was not hate but sickness. Hence, she resolved that she cannot fight with sick people but look for a cure for the sickness. That resolution made Anne change her strategy, and she joined the Civil Rights Movement. As such, she was present during the famous "I have a Dream" speech by Rev. Martin Luther King Jr. in Washington. However, Anne listened to Kingà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬s speech, and she comprehended that the movement lacked leaders, but they only had dreamers (Moody 271). Similarly, Anne looks at Kings Movement, and she realizes that in Mississippi they could not sleep, leave alone dreaming (Moody 334). Moody desired real change not a passive movement like Mahatm a Gandhi of India leading his followers to an effective revolution that was passive. Unfortunately, Anne believes a passive movement would fail in Mississippi because in the South of America individuals would embrace biggest difference. They concentrated too much on mock elections and voter registration. Hence, Moody opted to focus on assisting to bring progress and assist farmers purchase their land. Therefore, Moody saw the above mentioned as the actual change that was tangible and had an effect that was lasting. On the other hand, she could never leave Kings Movement because she knew there was a lot of work to be done about racial discrimination (Moody 340).The role of gender in the bookMany women influenced the way Anne Moody perceived the issue of race, and her later ideology in the Civil Rights Movement (Boynton and Jo Malin 404). Anneà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬s mother wanted to protect her from discovering the racial difference that existed in their society. For instance, she always reminde d Anne to behave in a particular way around the whites. Equally, when Anne asked her mother about NAACP, her mother warned her not to be asking such type of questions. However, when Anneà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬s father married Florence, who was light-skinned, she noticed how her mother hated the other race. In addition, when Anne interacted with Mrs. Burke she was confused because she could not understand society. Mrs. Burke always reminded Anne the place she belonged in society by showing her how to behave. Furthermore, Anne was not happy with the way Miss Adams, the basketball coach, made her ridiculous remarks and rules regarding the girls in college (Moody 243).Explaining the Goals, Activities, Expectations and Realities of the Civil Rights WorkersThe primary goals of the civil rights workers were to end racial discrimination in the United States and to expand Black voter registration. Other goals included; to establish public schools that enhance...

Sunday, May 17, 2020

Essay on Account For the Success of the Bolsheviks in...

Account For the Success of the Bolsheviks in October 1917 At the beginning of 1917 most of the Bolsheviks were in exile but by the end of 1917 the Bolshevik party had not only consolidated control of Moscow and Petrograd, but they were also advancing on the rest of the country. This success was due to several linked factors; the Bolshevik policy of non-cooperation, weakness of the Provisional Government, division of alternative opposition, Lenins leadership skills, the power of the Petrograd Soviet and Trotsky as its leader, failure on deliver of land reform and the oppressed, armed workers in Petrograd. Bolshevik success is dictated by whether they met their aims; these included the†¦show more content†¦Although, we must remember, that Lenin had incorrectly pushed for an unsuccessful revolution in July. Lenin is famed to have said, History will not forgive us if we do not assume power, Lenin chose, successfully, when to seize power. The Weaknesses of the Provisional Government were as much, if not more to blame than the successes of the Bolsheviks for the Socialist Revolution. The Provisional Government was delicate by its very nature, it was not democratically elected, it was illegitimate, and had no mandate to rule. Why should opposition groups recognise such a government? The Bolsheviks were careful not to affiliate itself with the Provisional Government because it wanted to disassociate itself from governments many failed policies and it also wanted to remain a small, hardcore, tightly knit net of ardent Marxists, without any Bourgeois influences. The Provisional Governments failed policies stemmed from its weak, fragmented coalition. The Octoberists were on the centre right as they agreed with the Tsars October Manifesto, which had ended the 1905 Revolution. The Cadets (Constitutional Democrats) were the moderate, liberals of the centre of the political spectrum. On theShow MoreRelatedThe Bolshevik Revol ution of October 1917-Essay Review1428 Words   |  6 PagesIn 1917, in the midst of the Great War, Russia faced one of the biggest political shifts that the Tsarist-ruled country had ever known-the Bolshevik Revolution. There are two significant time frames associated with the Bolshevik Revolution. In the February revolution Tsar Nicholas II abdicated his throne and a Provisional Government took control. In the October revolution the Bolsheviks took power by overthrowing the Provisional Government. How did the October revolution become a reality? WhatRead MoreThe Success of the Bolshevik Revolution in Russia in October 19171822 Words   |  8 PagesThe Success of the Bolshevik Revolution in Russia in October 1917 The Bolshevik seizure of power or coup de’tat of October 25th, 1917 was a culmination of both internal and external failure to satisfy the needs of an oppressed Russian society. In contrast to the spontaneous revolts earlier in 1917, the Bolshevik revolution was ‘a carefully planned plot carried out by ‘professional’ revolutionaries.’[1] The victory of the Marxist Lenin’s Bolsheviks was due to the failureRead MoreHow successful was Lenin in solving the Problems he faced? Essay1404 Words   |  6 Pagesï » ¿Jin-Ho Lee IB History – Mr. Wade 28/01/14 How successful was Lenin (1917-1924) in solving the problems he faced? With the October revolution in 1917, Lenin managed to execute a successful coup d’à ©tat against the provisional government of Russia and with the death of the constituent assembly early 1918; Lenin and his Bolsheviks had finally control over Russia. However this was just the beginning of various problems he would be facing. This raised the debate on whether Lenin could dealRead MoreWorld War Is Responsibility for the Collapse of the Provisional Government in 19171897 Words   |  8 PagesWorld War Is Responsibility for the Collapse of the Provisional Government in 1917 The Provisional Government assumed control of Russia following the abdication of the Tsar Nicholas II. It only had a brief period in power lasting about seven months. Historians have disputed the main cause for its failure, Marxist historians, such as John Reed, have rewarded it to the Bolsheviks effective propaganda machine, whilst more revisionist historians, such as Christopher ReadRead MoreAnimal Farm By George Orwell Essay1430 Words   |  6 Pagesthe novel represent â€Å"the Bolsheviks, who lead the overthrow of the capitalist Russian government only to become new masters in return† (Kollontai 45). So the novel has a deeper meaning and can be considered an allegory for the Bolshevik Revolution of 1917. The Soviet revolution marked the genesis of Bolshevism. The ideology of Bolshevism is represented in the adoption of Animalism in the novel. Orwell uses characters, symbols, events and concepts that refer to the Bolshevik revolution and its aftermathRead MoreStalin vs. Trotsky Essay3293 Words   |  14 Pagescommitted to the unity of theory and practice and bent upon spreading Communism throughout the whole world. While Lenin was alive (at any rate until 1922) both men had a secure place in his favor and therefore in the party as a whole. Since 1917, at least, Trotsky had supported Lenin on the main issues and seemed to have more of his candor and flexibility than Stalin. However, as Lenin sickened and died, the mutual antagonism between Trotsky and Stalin, who had never been compatibleRead MoreLenin13422 Words   |  54 PagesPosition created | Succeeded by | Alexei Rykov | Chairman of the Council of People s Commissars of the Russian SFSR | In office 8 November 1917  Ã¢â‚¬â€œ 21 January 1924 | Preceded by | Position created | Succeeded by | Alexei Rykov | Member of the Politburo | In office 25 March 1919  Ã¢â‚¬â€œ 21 January 1924 | In office 23 October 1917  Ã¢â‚¬â€œ 7 November 1917 | Personal details | Born | Vladimir Ilyich Ulyanov (Ð’Ð »Ã °Ã ´Ã ¸Ã ¼Ã ¸Ã'€ ИÐ »Ã'Å'Ð ¸Ã'‡ Ð £Ã »Ã'Å'Ã' Ã ½Ã ¾Ã ²) (1870-04-22)22 April 1870 Simbirsk, Russian Empire | Died |Read MoreEssay about The Evolution of Democracy in Georgia5043 Words   |  21 PagesThe Georgian people made its choice on 26 May 1918, when it voted for democracy and pluralism in the conditions of a free Georgia. 26 May was destroyed by Bolshevik bayonets, but the idea of freedom and democracy remain undefeated in the Georgian - Statement of the National Democratic Party, 1988.1 In the late 1980s and early 1990s, the Caucasian country of Georgia (map below) was among the vanguard of forces seeking the dissolution of the Soviet Union. It was the only republic to join the BalticRead MoreHistory HL Paper 3 Europe6131 Words   |  25 Pagesunification, †¢ Cavour advocated foreign help, Garibaldi opposed it. The above points should be known. Accept and reward other relevant details. [0 to 7 marks] for general comments or if only one person is addressed. [8 to 10 marks] for sequential narrative accounts of both with limited linkage. [11 to 13 marks] for an attempted comparative structure or excellent linkage. [14 to 16 marks] for accurate knowledge in a comparative framework. [17+ marks] for a perceptive, analytical and balanced comparison. –8–Read MoreWithin the period 1894-2005, Lenin has been the most significant leader of Russia and the USSR. How valid is this statement?3048 Words   |  13 Pageshis revolutionary ideas, such as the implementation of socialist reforms, his New Economic Policy in 1921 and the transformation of the Bolshevik faction to the Communist Part of the Soviet Union leading to a huge Marxist-Leninist movement in the USSR. However, when assessing the ‘significance’ of a leader, it’s crucial that four main themes are taken into account, these being – economics, foreign policy, social change and leadership ability. It can be argued that other leaders of Russia and the USSR

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Evidence Based Practice Of Health And Implements High...

Evidence-based practice benefits all participants of health and implements high quality care. Patients should find comfort in knowing the care they are receiving is the best available. Health facilities provide cost-appropriate care, using resources for effective interventions. Nurses implement practices in-line with the best evidence available. This quality of care involves critically evaluating whether practices are appropriate and applicable to care, and consistently seeking to improve and build upon care methods. Research plays a crucial role in implementing evidence-based practice. Nurses are responsible for knowing how to access research, judge its validity, incorporate it into clinical decision-making, and refine their own practice methods. This paper further explains how nurses utilize evidence-based practice to improve stroke care. With continuous research, evidence-based practice will evolve quality health care around the world. Keywords: evidence-based practice, nursing, research, stroke, Australia Research, Evidence-Based Practice, and Global Health Nursing Evidence-based practice (EBP) is the essence of quality health care in an ever-changing reality. It embodies clinical experiences, the patient, and supported research, to establish the most effective patient care (Brown, 2014). The best possible patient outcomes stem from staying current with changes in practice, and EBP communicates those changes through evidenced research. According to the InstituteShow MoreRelatedUse Of Competency Of A Nurse1348 Words   |  6 Pagesspark that can promote critical thinking, aim for competence, affect the whole system, and can bring quality in care delivery. Quality improvement processes help to identify issues and barriers in care, design safety techniques to prevent errors in the future, and provide patient-centered care in terms of individual needs, differences, preferences, education, and coordinate care depending on the health needs of that individual (IOM, 2010). Nurses make up the largest workforce in the healthcare systemRead MoreEvide nce Based Practice Nursing For A Med Surge / Orthopedic Unit Of An Acute Health Care Setting824 Words   |  4 Pages Introduction According to Houser (2012), evidence Based Practice Nursing is the application of evidence based findings by nurses to steer the nurse toward integration of clinical expert opinion and experience with an unbiased comprehensive analysis of the best scientific evidence professional nursing care literature can provide while integrating patient principles and preferences. When planning for sustaining evidenced based practice, it is vital to adopt a methodical critical thinking decisionRead MoreIntegration of Evidenced Based Practice in Professional Nursing1250 Words   |  5 PagesIntegration of Evidence-Based Practice into Professional Nursing Practice Sandra Sparks Chamberlain College of Nursing NR 351: Transitions to Professional Nursing Fall 2010 Introduction During the 1980’s, the term â€Å"evidence-based† medicine surfaced to describe the approach that used scientific evidence to determine the best practice. Evidence-based practice is a process that entails reviewing and instilling the most reliableRead MoreMedicine and Health Care Essay1114 Words   |  5 Pages Systems theory can be seen as a model for improving quality in the United States (US) healthcare system. Systems theory is based upon systems thinking that relies on the whole system and relationships rather than isolated parts. If the US healthcare system were to adopt a systems theory this could improve healthcare quality and reduce errors. Despite focus on increasing patient safety in hospitals, medical errors continue to remain high (Petula 2005, p. 6). By adopting the concept of systemsRead MoreVision for the Future of Nursing1181 Words   |  5 PagesVision for the future of nursing Currently, health care in the US has been made accessible and affordable to everyone, as evidenced by the increase in the number of patients in the health care system. The nursing profession is already facing numerous challenges to deliver good quality and safe patient care. Therefore, there is a need for growth in remodeling the nursing profession to meet the high demand of an aging population with more complex needs. The nurses have to quickly adapt to a newRead MoreThe Clinical Problem Presented Was An Increase In Surgical1602 Words   |  7 Pagesleading to patient harm after corrective surgery. Surgical site infections are avoidable and expensive for the health care facility. The issue of surgical site infections is nationwide and has resulted in law suits against health care facilities. Mortality, extended hospital care, and morbidity, associated with surgical site infections, has led to increased health care costs. In â€Å"A Colorectal ‘Care Bundle’ to Reduce S urgical Site Infections in Colorectal Surgeries: A Single-Center Experience† interventionsRead MoreNursing Management1133 Words   |  4 PagesEvidence-Based Practice Model in Nursing Management Evidence-Based Practice Model in Nursing Management Introduction Leadership and management play a major role in the provision of good services in health care organizations. Good models are required in the health organizations to help in transfer of information effectively to improve communication. Provision of good and high quality assured healthcare is one of the most important goals of the health care systems. Several models have been introducedRead MoreBest Practice Guidelines. Best Practice Guidelines (Bpg)1442 Words   |  6 PagesBest Practice Guidelines Best Practice Guidelines (BPG) have become a global movement in nursing. Healthcare organizations, practitioners, and nursing associations have an opportunity to provide quality and accountability to patients at the time of care. (RNAO, 2012) The Registered Nurses Association of Ontario (RNAO) (n.d., p.2) said that â€Å"since 1925, RNAO has advocated for healthy public policy, promoted excellence in nursing practice, increased nursing contributions to shaping the health-care, andRead MoreDcp Research Paper882 Words   |  4 PagesOnline BSN to DNP Programs: A Solution for the High-Level Talent Shortage In the United States, more than 58 million citizens live in areas that are classified as primary care shortage areas. These regions, official labeled Health Professional Shortage Areas (HPSAs), fail to maintain a sufficient talent pool of primary care providers as outlined by federal guidelines. According to a report issued by the Kaiser Foundation, Advanced Practice Nurses (APNs) have the potential to fill this void. As ofRead MoreOutline Of The Healthcare Reform1434 Words   |  6 Pageslegislation were enacted, the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA) and the Health Care and Education Reconciliation Act (HCERA). The ACA’s intent is to expand Medicaid coverage to millions of low-income Americans previously uninsured or underinsured. HCERA was passed after the ACA as a way to make provisions for penalties and payment programs to physicians to name a few. Some of the provisions outlined in the ACA on Affordable Care Act | include: †¢ Insurance coverage gaps †¢ Initial

Tuesday, May 5, 2020

Frank OHaras Method free essay sample

Does the postmodern poem care about the past? More importantly, was Frank O’Hara, as a torchbearer of the postmodern poetic, a loyal student of the past? Or was he a reckless practitioner of the ‘â€Å"I do this, I do that† aesthetic’[2]? This essay posits that O’Hara did not reject traditional measure, for ‘what differentiates the poet from other writers is the focus on mode’[3] and O’Hara was no exception in that he did not transcend traditional form. True, O’Hara argued that ‘you just go on your nerve’, however, as W. S. Merwin points out, O’Hara’s point of difference as a poet meant ‘ you don’t just go on that [nerve]. There had to be the talent. And it had to be his [O’Hara’s] own’[4]. Accordingly, O’Hara felt compelled to acquiesce; ‘measure and other technical apparatus, thats just common sense’[5]. Thus, the appearance of rhythm, isochrony, assonance, alliteration and the cacophonous echo of O’Hara’s poetic influences should come as no surprise. And through Charles Olson’s assertion that ‘form is never more than an extension of content’[6], I argue that the ‘nerve’ which was O’Hara’s fire – his very being – necessarily generated a poetic measure that accommodated a masterful fusion of both traditional and postmodern traits. Rhythm At first, O’Hara’s Personal Poem from his collection Lunch Poems seems to be a piece that ostensibly rebels against its ‘own rules’. In briefly analysing part of it, we might assess how seriously to take O’Hara’s purported poetic nonchalance, its ‘recreation of everyday experience a source of annoyance for partisans of every stripe’[7]. We might then strike at the heart of O’Hara’s confession: ‘I don’t think my experiences are clarified or made beautiful for myself or anyone else, they are just there in whatever form I can find them. ’[8] Personal Poem begins: Now when I walk around at lunchtime I have only two charms in my pocket an old Roman coin Mike Kanemitsu gave me and a bolt-head that broke off a packing case when I was in Madrid the others never brought me too much luck though they did help keep me in New York against coercion but now Im happy for a time and interested [9] (1953) Let us examine rhythm. Rhythm is, above all, the ‘patterning of energy, of tensions and release, movement and countermovement that we both perceive and produce in our own brains and muscles’[10]. In poetry, it is a semantic and aesthetic catalyst for a bio-chemical oscillation of the mind. Proponents of isochronism, the ‘rhythmic organisation of speech into equal intervals’[11], likely identifies a characteristic of O’Hara’s postmodern measure as being closely related to the rhythm of speech. The tone groups (i. e. the words comprising a single breath or utterance), seem to deliberately or inadvertently create a spoken rhythm: Now when I walk around at lunchtime (breath) I have only two charms in my pocket (breath) an old Roman coin Mike Kanemitsu gave me (breath) nd a bolt-head that broke off a packing case The apparent isochrony evokes a sense of being spoken to by O’Hara, seemingly ‘address[ing] itself to one person’[12]. Its natural spoken rhythm is established with each line- break, thus becoming and ‘important element of the reader’s experience’[13]. Whilst the syllable count of each line is not consiste nt, nor a rhythm regular enough to generate meter, there is an undeniable rhythm formed in the measure of this stanza; the inevitable breath-phrasing of a ‘practitioner of the impulsive’[14]. From Rhythm to Simultaneity Further, it is O’Hara’s ‘nerve’ which we find splayed out in terms described by Charles Olson’s ‘open’ field of poetry. With the rhythmic momentum of the second stanza, the pace kept moving by regular use of ‘and’, we can almost hear Olson barking down O’Hara’s neck as he writes: ‘keep it moving as fast as you can, citizen always one perception must must must (sic) MOVE, INSTANTER, ON ANOTHER! †[15] Thus the second stanza: I walk through the luminous humidity passing the House of Seagram with its wet and its loungers and the construction to the left that closed the sidewalk if I ever get to be a construction worker Id like to have a silver hat please and get The absence of punctuation and seemingly endless enjambment shows a commitment to the Surrealist tradition which Sellin calls ‘the cubist-surrealist esthetic [of] simultaneity’[16]. O’Hara’s spasmodic ‘nerve’ is palpably influenced by surrealist masters as Breton, Reverdy et al[17]. This is a prosody that openly embraces ‘syntactic ambiguity’[18] creating poetry of ‘great speed, openness, flexibility, and defiance of expectation’[19]. And albeit achieved not through a ‘traditional measure’ it is nevertheless drawn from tradition. More than that, Personal Poem, as with any other first-person poems of O’Hara, undoubtedly follows the thematic and stylistic lead of a modernist predecessor; ‘the first writer that chose to speak personally Vladimir Mayakovsky’[20]. In Lunch Poems we find the ‘rhetoric of pretending to have no rhetoric’[ 21] and can with confidence argue that O’Hara knows his tradition. Strange Semantic: Elegy of Alliteration A glance at a fragment of O’Hara’s Second Avenue poem, a ‘postmodern elegy’[22] as David Dick puts it, will further clarify the degree to which we should temper O’Hara’s supposed war on the ‘propagandists for technique’[23]. This ‘high energy-construct energy discharge’[24] surely displays what Charles Olson meant when he said: ‘form is never more than an extension of content. ’[25] What spanking opossums of sneaks are caressing the routes! and of the pulse-racked tremors attached to my viciousness I can only enumerate the somber instances of wetness. (â€Å"SA† 54-56) Despite possessing a severe poverty of semantic sense or fixed connotation, O’Hara’s use of traditional alliteration and assonance work tirelessly to convey meaning: panking opossums of sneaks are caressing the routes †¦ somber instances of wetness They encourage through persistent and unrelenting hissing almost jittering a feeling of utter despair. And the jarring syllable stresses of pulse-racked tremors is a powerful modal tool for conveying the urge of pulsation and tremor. These traditional prosodic devices are re-framed by O’Hara to champion the postmodern aesthetics of tra nsience, uncertainty, spontaneity and simultaneity; the use of tradition to break free from itself. And as Dick rightly points out, Second Avenue ‘articulates a distaste, and sense of undesirable duty, toward the tradition of â€Å"legendary elegies†[emphasis own]’[26]. In the vein of Rilke’s Duino Elegies, it cannot but bow to the poetic diction that characterized his modernist forbearer: And must I express the science of legendary elegies consummate on the Clarissas of puma and gnu and wildebeest? † (â€Å"SA† 73-74) Obliging to tradition, O’Hara’s dons his ‘tight pants’[27] and crafts in these two lines an exceptionally poised diction. As Dick describes it: Second Avenue† is a poem that is best read in terms of the European modernist tradition Though it may not have a distinct narrative structure, the insistent presence of its influences and voices provide it with a unifying theme: the simultaneous celebration and parody of major poems written by the European modernists†. Couple Second Poem with a surprising line from Music. It leaps from the page then recedes like a playful child playing ‘tag’, almost jolting us like a ghost which we believe a mere dream. Then we begin to understand how ‘seriously’ to take O’Hara’s retort from the Personism Manifesto: nd gusts of water spray over the basins of leave like the hammers of a glass pianoforte. If I seem to you to have lavender lips under the leaves of the world, I must tighten my belt. [28] (1953) Whilst O’Hara’s idiosyncratic quirkiness, playfulness, ephemeral imagery and juxtaposition is ubiquitous, a simultaneous traditional diction of alliteration and assonance is worked masterfully like interlocking waves from the past. Oscillation: Past and Present Finally, it would be irresponsible to ignore one particular poem, unbridled and catapulting towards a combination of traditional and loose forms. In Memory of My Feelings (written in 1956) is, as Marjorie Perloff suggests, an ‘extremely â€Å"open† lyric sequence that nevertheless never gives way to formlessness, never â€Å"panics†Ã¢â‚¬â„¢[29]. It opens with even line lengths, a lyrical quality and a still, mirage-like balance that cannot resist a ‘familiar romantic topos’[30] of past poetic eras: My quietness has a man in it, he is transparent and he carries me quietly, like a gondola, through the streets. He has several likenesses, like stars and years, like numerals. My quietness has a number of naked selves, o many pistols I have borrowed to protect myselves   from creatures who too readily recognize my weapons   and have murder in their heart! †¦ As in interesting juxtaposition exercise, one might say that these verses are unrecognizable beside the ‘†¦immediacy, excitement, and sense of presence’[31] of this stanza from Five Poems (1960): an invitation to lunch HOW DO YOU LIKE THAT? when I only have 16 cents and 2 packages of yoghurt there’s a lesson in that, isn’t there like in Chinese Poetry when a leaf falls? [32] And then in returning to In Memory, we likewise identify a hodge-podge of versified language; almost a scribbled thought lacking any deliberate measure. And yet, Perloff comes vociferously to O’Hara’s defence in asserting that ‘O’Hara’s reputation as a causal improvisator, unschooled doodler, could hardly miss the mark more completely’[33]. O’Hara quite deliberately hoped to employ ‘a kind of automatic writing to match the epic scale and grandeur built up by accident and subconscious connections in abstract expressionist painting, aleatory music, and French surrealist cata-logue poems’[34]. Observe the contrast. At first, we need go no further than the musicality of In Memory to ascertain O’Hara’s influence from, and challenge to, traditional measure. The contrasting metaphors of like a gondola, †¦ like stars and years, like numerals. †¦ are neatly layered beside one another evoking Symbolist tones and forms of mysticism and otherworldliness. Then the poem oscillates, between a traditional poetic awareness and the following free-verse, possessed by uncertain lineation, surprise and single-word lines: I am underneath its leaves as the hunter crackles and pants   and bursts, as the barrage balloon drifts behind a cloud   and animal death whips out its flashlight, whistling and slipping the glove off the trigger hand. The serpents eyes   redden at sight of those thorny fingernails, he is so smooth! And yet still, O’Hara once wrote to Bill Berkson that ‘there is as much freedom in the composition of music as there is in a prison recreation yard’[35] which Perloff suggests O’Hara must have felt to some degree regarding poetry too. Do we therefore fail to find a consistent approach from O’Hara towards traditional prosody? Ultimately, O’Hara’s Personism Manifesto that publicized O’Hara’s guiding ‘nerve’, was a satirical take on the poetic manifestos that seemed a rite of passage for every poetic movement that preceded his own. The brazen nonchalance we therefore find in this essay title may have swept up some unintended (and misguided) conclusions among critics that O’Hara had rejected traditional prosody. As we can see from a brief examination above, that couldn’t be farther from the truth. O’Hara’s Prosody: A Human Measure Despite my assertions that O’Hara was highly attuned to poetic tradition, in an important way we should nevertheless take heed to O’Hara’s words in rejecting certain confines of the past. As David Herd aptly puts it: He (O’Hara) is composing as he steps; the step†¦is the measure of his composition. And†¦as he steps he becomes acquainted with the environment that form(s) the fabric of his poem What O’Hara establishes is a human measure, a prosody of cognition which finds its metric in (his own) human form. [36] Ultimately, O’Hara’s poetic form straddles the line between traditional aesthetics and the movement of the day – his day. Elain Equie describes it by saying that ‘art is not so easily democratized But if there is a way to be both an aesthete and a populist, Frank O’Hara found it’[37]. O’Hara was a unique poetic composer who, whilst acutely aware of the historical foundations upon which he stood, was still able to write about a ‘liver sausage sandwich’[38] and mean nothing more than that. Bibliography A Tribute to Frank O’Hara, published in Crossroads, Spring 2000